HomeScienceNew research on magnetite in salmon noses illuminates understanding of

New research on magnetite in salmon noses illuminates understanding of


master mentalism tricks

It’s widely understood that animals such as salmon, butterflies and birds have an innate magnetic sense, allowing them to use the Earth’s magnetic field for navigation to places such as feeding and breeding grounds.

But scientists have struggled to determine exactly how the underlying sensory mechanism for magnetic perception actually works.

In a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, an international team of researchers, including scientists from Oregon State University, outlines a new theory. Magnetite crystals that form inside specialized receptor cells of salmon and other animals may have roots in ancient genetic systems that were developed by bacteria and passed to animals long ago through evolutionary genetics.

The theory is based on new evidence from nanoscopic magnetic material found within cells in the noses of salmon. The paper’s lead author is Renee Bellinger, who began the research as a doctoral student at Oregon State, completing her Ph.D. in fisheries science in 2014.

“The cells that contain magnetic material are very scarce,” said Bellinger, who now works as a research geneticist at the U.S. Geological Survey and is affiliated with the University of Hawaii, Hilo. “We weren’t able to definitively prove magnetite as the underlying key to magnetic perception in animals, but our study revealed associated genes as an important tool to find new evidence of how potential magnetic sensors may function.”

“Finding magnetic receptors is like trying to find a needle in haystack. This work paves the way to make the ‘needle’ glow really bright so we can find and understand receptor cells more easily,” Bellinger said.

advertisement

The findings have the potential for widespread application, from improving salmon management through better understanding of how they use the ocean to targeted medical treatments based on magnetism, said coauthor Michael Banks, a fisheries genomics, conservation and behavior professor at Oregon State.

“Salmon live a hard and fast life, going out to the ocean to specific areas to feed and then coming back to their original spawning grounds where they die. They don’t have the opportunity to teach their offspring where to go, yet the offspring still somehow know where to go,” Banks said. “If we can figure out the way animals such as salmon sense and orient, there’s a lot of potential applications for helping to preserve the species, but also for human applications such as medicine or other orientation technology.”

Bellinger’s work built on research from more than 20 years ago by Michael Walker of the University of Auckland in New Zealand, who initially traced magnetic sensing to tissue in the noses of trout.

“He narrowed it down to magnetite in the olfactory rosette,” Bellinger said. “We were expecting to see chains of crystals in the noses of salmon, similar to how magnetite-producing bacteria grow chains of crystals and use them as a compass needle. But it turns out the individual crystals are organized in compact clusters, like little eggs. The configuration was different than the original hypothesis.”

The form in which magnetite appears, as tiny crystals inside specialized receptor cells, represents biomineralization, or the process by which living organisms produce minerals. The similarity between magnetite crystals of bacteria and fish suggests that they share a common evolutionary genetic history, Bellinger said.

advertisement

The mechanism for developing magnets was developed by bacteria more than two billion years ago and then passed on to animals. Today, these tools to perceive magnetism continue to be present across a broad array of animal species, said Banks, who is affiliated with OSU’s Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Sciences in OSU’s College of Agricultural Sciences and the Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station at OSU’s Hatfield Marine Science Center.

The process for sharing them across animal life may have been similar to the evolution of mitochondria, which control how animals release energy. Mitochondria originated in bacteria and were then transferred to other organisms, he said.

Understanding the evolutionary history of magnetite is a step toward further pinpointing the underlying process, the researchers said. Banks, Bellinger and colleagues would next like to test their new understanding and associated markers to further address the mystery of why and how some life forms have well-tuned tools for long and precise migratory strategies.

Co-authors of the paper are Jiandong Wei of Shanghai University in China; Uwe Hartmann of Saarland University in Germany; Herve Cadiou of the Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neuroscience in France; and Michael Winklhofer of the University of Oldenburg in Germany.

Bellinger’s work was supported in part by a Mamie Markham Research Award; several awards of up to $10,000 are available to support research by graduate students at Hatfield Marine Science Center each year. These funds allowed Bellinger to travel to France to conduct primary research for the project.

Read The Full Article Here


trick photography
Advertisingfutmillion

Popular posts

YOLO: Silver Destiny Interview: Michael Cusack, Todor Manojlovic, & Sarah
Netflix Reveals First Look at Live-Action ‘One Piece’ Series
Rami Malek to Lead Buster Keaton Miniseries From Matt Reeves
Despite Cobra Kai Ending, EPs Tease ‘More Karate Kid Stories’
Major League Wrestling Finds a New Home on Reelz
The Ark’s Cast and Crew Gave Us the Exclusive Scoop
10 Best Episodes of ‘Dawsons Creek,’ Now 25 Years Old
Fantasy Island Exclusive Sneak Peek: Roarke Welcomes Her Very First
Future, Missy Elliott, the Roots, Glorilla, and More to Perform
Exclusive Interview with RichGA
Noah Assad On Working With Bad Bunny From The Beginning,
Frank Ocean Restocks Blonde Vinyl for the First Time in
I’m a Style Expert, and These 12 New-Season Buys Have
So Long, High Heels—These Are the Party Shoes Every Fashion
6 Best Freckle Pens for a Natural, Sun-Kissed Look
30 ASOS Dresses That You’ll Love and Wear Year-Round
Books & Looks Podcast: Bad City, The Dark Side of
Interview with Measha Stone, Author of Ravaged Innocence
CATHERINE, CALLED BIRDY, Sexism, Ableism, and Me: What I Learned
Your Guide to This Year’s ALA Youth Media Awards
BBC documentary used face-swapping AI to hide protesters’ identities
Joint effort discloses deep divergence of a mysterious porpoise
How to watch the rare green comet whiz past Earth
Double Disaster: Wildfires Followed by Extreme Rainfall Are More Likely
Bitcoin Breaks Above $20,000 as Investors Turn to Riskier Assets
Meta Slams Apple, Says Ad Policy ‘Undercutting Others’ in Digital
Snap Founder Slams the Metaverse, Says People Prefer Augmented Reality
Lina Khan’s Plan to Liberate US Workers